In Bologna Process Implementation Report 2012 wordt gesteld dat
in de afgelopen jaren druk is komen te staan op de financiering van
het hoger onderwijs door de verschillende Europese landen.
Nederland presteert daarbinnen nog bovengemiddeld, maar over de
gehele linie is een teruglopend percentage van de publieke uitgaven
ingeboekt voor hoger onderwijs.
Ook op het gebied van de andere implementatiepunten van Bologna
zijn er punten van zorg. Zo zijn er in Europa grote verschillen te
zien in de implementatie van LevenLangLeren-trajecten en blijft in
heel Europa de uitgaande mobiliteit met slechts 1% van de studenten
die buiten de European Higher Education Area (EHEA) gaan studeren
nog steeds erg laag.
De belangrijkste punten uit het Bologna-rapport van 2012 leest u
"Although practically all EHEA countries have established some
form of external quality assurance system, there are
significant differences in purpose and approach. The majority of
systems across the EHEA are primarily supervisory in character.
Indeed 21 systems have established agencies with decision-making
powers - including countries where the agency makes a proposal for
decision and the government is responsible for the actual
11 systems have agencies that are advisory and more
enhancement-oriented in character. Four countries (Austria,
Liechtenstein, Malta and Switzerland) point to a mixed situation,
with different agencies having different orientations
Many external quality assurance systems fail to take a holistic
view of quality, with student services being the most
commonly neglected key issue. With regard to stakeholder
participation in external quality assurance, there is also some way
to go before students systematically participate in all relevant
"Most of he countries combine policy actions focusing on
selected societal groups with general policy measures targeting all
students (or prospective students). These measures commonly include
financial support schemes, outreach programmes as well as the
provision of alternative access routes to higher education, and
guidance and counselling services."
"In the EHEA, an increasing percentage of the population is
achieving a higher education qualification. However, not all those
who enter higher education actually finish. While available data
are imperfect, they indicate that more than 60 % of higher
education entrants are graduating in almost all systems with a
first and/or second cycle qualification. However a substantial
percentage of students drop out before graduating.
Indeed, in half of the EHEA countries, the unemployment ratio of
recent graduates is higher than 10 %, which is more than three
times the median rate for young people three or more years after
"Most countries recognise the need to enhance flexible delivery
of higher education programmes and they address this issue through
various policy actions. While in some countries lifelong learning
in higher education embraces a wide range of activities, in others,
the list is still relatively limited.
Around two-thirds of countries have established an official
student status other than the status of a fulltime student. Often
such students (e.g. part-time students) are associated with
lifelong learning programmes. Yet studying with a formal status
other than full-time often requires higher private financial
investment than studying under traditional arrangements. Therefore,
the existence of alternative student statuses needs to be seen in
close relation to financial arrangements that apply to each
category of students.
Participation rates of mature students are as low as 2 % of the
total student population in some countries. At the other end of the
spectrum are the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom, where
mature students represent around one third of the total student
population. This suggests that EHEA countries address the needs
and expectations of "lifelong learners" with very
different degrees of intensity. "
"Currently, all but two countries show an incoming degree
mobility rate of less than 10 % in the European Higher Education
Area. The vast majority of countries have values below 5 %. This is
also true concerning outward degree mobility rates of graduates
inside the EHEA. The weighted average for this mobility flow is
currently slightly below 2 %. For outward mobility of students
going outside the EHEA for study, the rate for the majority of
countries is less than 1 %.
However, as these figures are related only to degree mobility,
statistical information on credit mobility has to be added and
taken into consideration when assessing progress towards the 20 %
benchmark. The current projection of shortterm trends in the
framework of the Erasmus programme anticipates 7 % by 2020, while
other sources of reliable credit mobility data also need to be
identified and added. "
Het volledige rapport leest u hier