HO: veelvormiger, massaler en rijker geschakeerd
De OESO-review werd behalve in EU-landen ook uitgevoerd in landen als Chili, Mexico, China, Nieuw Zeeland en Rusland. Eerder gaf OESO-reviewer prof. Simon Marginson op ScienceGuide aan dat het Nederlandse hoger onderwijs “zeer goed” uit de Review kwam – op OCW na. De hoofdontwikkelingen van het HO zijn in de discussies op het congres als volgt naar voren gekomen:
Main trends within tertiary education
Although not all countries are in the same position, a number of trends within tertiary education emerged.
Expansion of tertiary education systems
The expansion of tertiary education has been remarkable in recent decades. Globally, in 2004, 132 million students enrolled in tertiary education, up from 68 million in 1991. Average annual growth in tertiary enrolment over the period 1991-2004 stood at 5.1% worldwide.
Diversification of provision
Expansion of tertiary education was accompanied by a diversification of provision. New institution types emerged, educational offerings within institutions multiplied, private provision expanded, and new modes of delivery were introduced.
More heterogeneous student bodies
The rise of female participation has been the most noteworthy trend affecting the composition of student bodies in tertiary education. A second prominent development is the growing participation of more mature students leading to a rise in the average age of student bodies. In addition, in most countries, tertiary student bodies are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of socio-economic background, ethnicity and previous education.
New funding arrangements
A number of trends are also discernible in funding arrangements for tertiary education. First, there has been a diversification of funding sources. Second, the allocation of public funding for tertiary education is increasingly characterised by greater targeting of resources, performance- based funding, and competitive procedures. Third, a number of countries are expanding their student support systems.
Increasing focus on accountability and performance
The development of formal quality assurance systems is one of the most significant trends that have affected tertiary education systems during the past few decades. Starting in the early 1980s quality became a key topic in tertiary education policy. The expansion of tertiary education has raised questions about the amount and direction of public expenditure for tertiary education. In addition to fiscal constraints, increased market pressures have also fostered the growing focus on accountability in tertiary education.
New forms of institutional governance
Over the past few decades important changes have occurred in the leadership of tertiary education institutions, including the emergence of new perspectives on academic leadership and new ways of organising the decision-making structure. Academic leaders are increasingly seen as managers, coalition-builders or entrepreneurs.
Global networking, mobility and collaboration
Tertiary education is becoming more internationalised and increasingly involves intensive networking among institutions, scholars, students and with other actors such as industry. International collaborative research has been strengthened by the dense networking between institutions and cross-border funding of research activities.
Het volledige document met de achterliggende studie vindt u hier:
OECD Thematic Review of Tertiary Education: Synthesis Report: Overview
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