Editors Omar Moufakkir and Peter Burns call for chapterproposals call for chapter proposals for the bookControversies in Tourism. This book will make asubstantial contribution to the understanding of tourismcontroversies. Its purpose is to provide a platform for open debateand intellectual discourse with a variety of views on perceivedcontroversies or manifest conflicts within tourismenvironments.
Extended abstracts and expressions of interest need to be sentto the editors by January 11, 2010. Full details are given inthe call below.
Call for chapterproposals
Tourism is a dynamic global phenomenon: an agent of change and asignificant factor in social, cultural, and technical evolution.Such evolutions, especially those driven by tourism, are almostcertainly followed by a variety of induced controversies. A look atthe current spectrum of tourism studies illustrates the importance,timeliness, and even necessity to set these controversies out forserious debate beyond the simplicities of journalistic headlines. A critical analysis of the contexts, causes, and consequencesis required. Failure to comprehend the basis of a tourismcontroversy may (more than not) produce myopic tourismdevelopment policies of the sort seen in countries ranging fromTurkey to Kenya.
This book will make a substantial contribution to theunderstanding of tourism controversies. Its purpose is to provide aplatform for open debate and intellectual discourse with a varietyof views on perceived controversies or manifest conflicts firstlywithin tourism (endogenous controversies), but also themultidimensional contexts of environment and civil society(exogenous context). Accordingly, the first part of the book willfocus on established controversies in tourism, whilethe second and substantive part will identify and comment upon newand emerging conflicts, dilemmas, paradoxes, anddisputes within tourism contexts.
The ‘classic’ controversies derived from and rooted in tourism(such as dark/thanatourism, tourism development, tourism planning,employment in tourism, malpractice with tourism statistics,heritage tourism, sustainable tourism, sport and mega events,tourism and sex, gaming, events and authenticity or commodificationof culture, adventure tourism, eco-tours) are wellestablished in the tourism literature, whereas contemporary, oremerging examples (such as medical tourism, political tourism,tourism related to poverty, volunteer tourism, wildlife tourism),are less documented and under-researched in academia.
The editors welcome contributions that deal with the mentionedcontroversies, but are also open to other ideas, especially thoserelated to emerging controversies.
Example of controversies intourism
Spretnak (1999) and Shiva (1999) ask whether the discourse ofdevelopment and action a matter of economics rather thanlivelihood. The real effect of modern ‘development’ policies hasbeen a substantive increase in the suffering of the localcommunity. Does tourism in less developed countries exacerbate oralleviate poverty, due to Western interventions and developmentpolicies? Does tourism represent an effective or realistic means ofachieving development? Who benefits from development? (Sharpley,2002).
Employment and human resources
Issues and controversies in relation to employment in tourismare by no means new. One of the challenges which any discussion ofhuman resources in international tourism is how to resolve the manycontradictions that are evident within the industry, consideringthe contradictory tensions between, on the one hand, the process ofempowerment and on the other, pressure toward standardization andde-skilling in the delivery of products and services (e.g. Ritzer’snotion of McDonalization).
Ethical investment and tourism projects: There can becontroversies over investment in tourism in foreign countries byentrepreneurs from countries that are seen as undesirable by theinternational community (Swarbrooke, 1999).
On-going controversies epitomise the nature of the conflicts inheritage-related tourism: one side supports the project foreconomic and social reasons (ie., jobs) and the other side opposesthem for cultural or ecological reasons (damage to the integrity ofthe cultural or natural heritage). One side is interested more inbringing in tourists, the other is more interested in the intrinsicvalue which heritage has for the community (Ollrich, 1994).
Thendran and Baum (2000, p. 404) noted that the concept andpractice of sustainability are “mired in contradictions andcontroversies”, when discussing preservation and developmentissues. Among several other (e.g., Buttler, 1996; Maclellan, 1997)Callins and Baum (2003) asked whether sustainability as a concepthas been “hijacked by the tourism industry through eco-labeling andeco-selling”.
Sex and red light districts
The issue of sex tourism has been discussed by several authors.For example, Carter and Clift (2000) looked at the use of red lightdistricts as tourist attractions and discussed the line betweencommercial sex and tourism and how they become blurred. They alsodiscussed the behavioural intent of travellers as well asstructural, social and power inequalities dimensions that informthe issue. Hall (1996) argued that “in order for sex tourism tooperate successfully it requires several things: a labour market inwhich women are economically desperate enough to enterprostitution; male travellers from affluent countries who are ableto draw on a rationalized ideology”.
Authenticity and festivals
As a recent tradition the rebirth of Carnival has given rise tocontroversies in cities where festivals have either been revived orsometimes even newly invented. This gives rise to questions ofauthenticity, commercialization, and a balance between residentsand tourist involvement and needs (Smith and Forest, 2006).
Even in tourism planning controversies often arise. Gunn et al.(2002, p. 26) argued that because of tourism complexity, plannersat the destination should encompass several interest groups-residents, businesses, arts and humanities, cultural and naturalresources, protection advocates, civil leaders, and professionaldesigners/planners.
Adventure tourism has controversies. While environmental andsocial impacts are not new to the tourism industry, they can beexacerbated in the Adventure Tourism setting due to the need forprestine environments, often intense connection with the localpopulation and culture. (Ewert and Jamieson, p. 81).
Dann (2003) looked at “the dark side of tourism” and examinedthe controversies inherent in managing dissonant heritage,emphasizing problems of political bias and selectiveinterpretation, issues of local resonance versus touristdetachment.
Akama (1999) examined wildlife hunting and acknowledged thatthis type of tourism will lead to large-scale extermination ofwildlife, especially the much sought-after mega species such aselephants, lions, leopards, giraffes and cheetahs. Within thisscenario, local subsistence hunting has come to be termed as”poaching” (p. 73). Shackley (1996) discussed the issue of thekeeping of animals in captivity as regarded by many as ethicallyindefensible, even if the reason is primarily education. Otherswould argue that a conservation message can be conveyed far moreeffectively if visitors can see and empathise than watching them onTV.
Example of themes and chapters that could beincluded in the book
Township/ Favella / slums tourism: Making money ofpoverty
- Tourists visiting slums in India or the townships inSouth Africa or Kenya
- Slumdog Millionaire and the concept of film tourism as well aspoverty tourism
- Tourism development and sustainability in the Middle East
- Mega events and tourism projects and their impacts on theenvironment and culture
- Contested Heritage & tourism
- Ownership, Past, Present
- Inclusion and exclusion of stakeholders
- Multiple claims, contested interpretation, controversialuses
- Can heritage ( the presence and current interpretation,the presentations, formal and informal uses, and users ) bringtogether stakeholders with different cultural views andvalues?
- Medical tourism
- Host, guest and generating country: who’s winning and who’sloosing?
- Tourism and charities
- Philanthropic tourism and the idea of the noble tourist
- Volunteering in tourism
- Peace through tourism
- Myth or reality?
- Political tourism
- Tourism boycotts
- Tour guiding and interpretation of heritage
- Controversies over tourism in countries with despoticregimes
- Tourism and migration
- From tourists to second home owners to local owners: the caseof the British and German moving to Spain or other warmcountries
- Debauchery tourism
- Between right and wrong
- Thanatourism/dark tourism
- Displacement of local communities for tourism and hospitalitydevelopment.
- Sex tourism: Tourism and the sex industry in developingcountries
- Child labor
- Economic impacts of tourism: lies, Damn lies andStatistics
- Indigenous communities: Loss of tradition versus modernity
- Tourists and drug use
- Corruption in tourism
- Tourism responsibility
- Environmental degradation versus eco-tourism
- Tourism and politics
- Mega events
- Casino development
- Funding tourism projects
Please submit short proposals, abstracts or draftpapers to Dr. Omar Moufakkir by January 11, 2010. Questions aboutthe book should be directed to the editors:
OmarMoufakkir Peter Burns
International TourismManagement Tourism and Development
StendenUniversity School of Service Management University of Brighton
+31 (0)582441301 +44 (0)1273 643897